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Considered a saint and an avtar by his Devotee

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nilmat Puran dr. Ved Ghai

Whereas the treaty of amity and concord, which was concluded between the British Government and the late Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the ruler of Lahore in 1809, was broken by the unprovoked aggression on the British provinces of the Sikh Army, in December last: And whereas, on that occasion, by the proclamation dated the 13th of December, the territories then in the occupation of the Maharaja of Lahore, on the left or British bank of the river Sutlej, were confiscated and annexed to the British provinces; and since that time, hostile operations have been prosecuted by the two Governments, the one against the other, which have resulted in the occupation of Lahore by the British troops: And whereas it has been determined that upon certain conditions, peace shall be re-established between the two Governments, the following treaty of peace between the Honourable English East India Company, and Maharaja Dalip Singh Bahadur, and his childern, heirs, and successors, bas been concluded, on the part of the Honourable Company, by Frederick Currie, Esq; and Brevet-Major Henry Montgomery Lawrence, by virtue of full powers to that effect vested in them by the Right Honourable Sir Henry Hardinge, G.C.B., one of Her Brittanic Majesty's most Honourable Privy Council, Governor-General appointed by the Honourable Company to direct and control all their affairs in the East-Indies, and on the part of his Highness the Maharaja, Dalip Singh, by Bhai Ram Singh, Raja Lai Singh, Sardar Tej Singh, Sardar Chattar Singh Attariwala, Sardar Ranjor Singh Majithia, Diwan Dina Nath, and Fakir Nur-ud-din vested with full powers and authority on the part of his Highness.

Article 1. There shall be  perpetual  peace  and  friendship between the British Government, on the one part, and Maharaja Dalip Singh, his heirs and successors on the other.

Article 2. The Maharaja of Lahore renounces for himself, his heirs and successors all claim to or connection with, the territories lying to the South of the river Sutlej, and engages never to have any concern with those territories or the inhabi­tants thereof.

Article 3. The Maharaja cedes to the Honourable company in perpetual sovereignty, all his forts, territories, and rights in the Doab and country, hill and plain, situate between the rivers Beas and Sutlej.

Article 4. The British Government having demanded from the Lahore State, an indemnification for the expenses of the war, in addition to the cession of territory described in Article 3, payment of a one and a half crores of rupees; and the Lahore Government being unable to pay the whole of this sum at this time, or to give security satisfactory to the British Government for its eventual payment; the Maharaja cedes to the Honourable Company, in perpetual sovereignty, ;is equivalent for one crore of rupees all his forts, territories, rights, and interests in the hill countries which are situate between the rivers Beas and Indus, including the Provinces of Kashmir and Hazara.

Article 5. The Maharaja will pay to the British Government the sum of fifty lacs of rupees, on or before the ratification of this treaty.

Article 6. The Maharaja engages to disband the mutinous troops of the Lahore army, taking from them their arms; and his Highness agrees to reorganize the regular, or Ain, regiments of infantry, upon the system, and according to the regulations as to pay and allowances, observed in the time of the late Mahraja Ranjit Singh. The Maharaja further engages to pay up all arrears to the soldiers that are discharged under the pro­visions of this article.

Article 7. The regular army of Lahore State shall hence-forth be limited to 25 battalions of infantry, consisting of 800 bayonets each with 12,000 cavalry: this number at no time to be all private property that may be endamaged. The British Government will, moreover, observe all due consideration to the religious feelings of the inhabitants of those tracts through, which the army may pass.

Article 11. The Maharaja engages never to take, or retain in his service, any British subject, nor the subject of any European or American State, without the consent of the British Government.

Article 12. In consideration of the services rendered by Raja Gulab Singh of Jammu to the Lahore State, towards procuring the restoration of relations of amity between the Lahore and British Governments, the Maharaja hereby agrees to recognize the independent sovereignty of Raja Gulab Singh, in such territories and districts in the hills as may be made over to the said Raja Gulab Singh by separate agreement between himself and the British Government, with the dependencies thereof, which may have been in the Raja's possession since the time of the late Maharaja Kharak Singh: and the British Government in consideration of the good conduct of Raja Gulab Singh, also agrees to recognize his independence in s

 

 

Whereas the treaty of amity and concord, which was concluded between the British Government and the late Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the ruler of Lahore in 1809, was broken by the unprovoked aggression on the British provinces of the Sikh Army, in December last: And whereas, on that occasion, by the proclamation dated the 13th of December, the territories then in the occupation of the Maharaja of Lahore, on the left or British bank of the river Sutlej, were confiscated and annexed to the British provinces; and since that time, hostile operations have been prosecuted by the two Governments, the one against the other, which have resulted in the occupation of Lahore by the British troops: And whereas it has been determined that upon certain conditions, peace shall be re-established between the two Governments, the following treaty of peace between the Honourable English East India Company, and Maharaja Dalip Singh Bahadur, and his childern, heirs, and successors, bas been concluded, on the part of the Honourable Company, by Frederick Currie, Esq; and Brevet-Major Henry Montgomery Lawrence, by virtue of full powers to that effect vested in them by the Right Honourable Sir Henry Hardinge, G.C.B., one of Her Brittanic Majesty's most Honourable Privy Council, Governor-General appointed by the Honourable Company to direct and control all their affairs in the East-Indies, and on the part of his Highness the Maharaja, Dalip Singh, by Bhai Ram Singh, Raja Lai Singh, Sardar Tej Singh, Sardar Chattar Singh Attariwala, Sardar Ranjor Singh Majithia, Diwan Dina Nath, and Fakir Nur-ud-din vested with full powers and authority on the part of his Highness.

Article 1. There shall be  perpetual  peace  and  friendship between the British Government, on the one part, and Maharaja Dalip Singh, his heirs and successors on the other.

Article 2. The Maharaja of Lahore renounces for himself, his heirs and successors all claim to or connection with, the territories lying to the South of the river Sutlej, and engages never to have any concern with those territories or the inhabi­tants thereof.

Article 3. The Maharaja cedes to the Honourable company in perpetual sovereignty, all his forts, territories, and rights in the Doab and country, hill and plain, situate between the rivers Beas and Sutlej.

Article 4. The British Government having demanded from the Lahore State, an indemnification for the expenses of the war, in addition to the cession of territory described in Article 3, payment of a one and a half crores of rupees; and the Lahore Government being unable to pay the whole of this sum at this time, or to give security satisfactory to the British Government for its eventual payment; the Maharaja cedes to the Honourable Company, in perpetual sovereignty, ;is equivalent for one crore of rupees all his forts, territories, rights, and interests in the hill countries which are situate between the rivers Beas and Indus, including the Provinces of Kashmir and Hazara.

Article 5. The Maharaja will pay to the British Government the sum of fifty lacs of rupees, on or before the ratification of this treaty.

Article 6. The Maharaja engages to disband the mutinous troops of the Lahore army, taking from them their arms; and his Highness agrees to reorganize the regular, or Ain, regiments of infantry, upon the system, and according to the regulations as to pay and allowances, observed in the time of the late Mahraja Ranjit Singh. The Maharaja further engages to pay up all arrears to the soldiers that are discharged under the pro­visions of this article.

Article 7. The regular army of Lahore State shall hence-forth be limited to 25 battalions of infantry, consisting of 800 bayonets each with 12,000 cavalry: this number at no time to be all private property that may be endamaged. The British Government will, moreover, observe all due consideration to the religious feelings of the inhabitants of those tracts through, which the army may pass.

Article 11. The Maharaja engages never to take, or retain in his service, any British subject, nor the subject of any European or American State, without the consent of the British Government.

Article 12. In consideration of the services rendered by Raja Gulab Singh of Jammu to the Lahore State, towards procuring the restoration of relations of amity between the Lahore and British Governments, the Maharaja hereby agrees to recognize the independent sovereignty of Raja Gulab Singh, in such territories and districts in the hills as may be made over to the said Raja Gulab Singh by separate agreement between himself and the British Government, with the dependencies thereof, which may have been in the Raja's possession since the time of the late Maharaja Kharak Singh: and the British Government in consideration of the good conduct of Raja Gulab Singh, also agrees to recognize his independence in s

 

 

Whereas the treaty of amity and concord, which was concluded between the British Government and the late Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the ruler of Lahore in 1809, was broken by the unprovoked aggression on the British provinces of the Sikh Army, in December last: And whereas, on that occasion, by the proclamation dated the 13th of December, the territories then in the occupation of the Maharaja of Lahore, on the left or British bank of the river Sutlej, were confiscated and annexed to the British provinces; and since that time, hostile operations have been prosecuted by the two Governments, the one against the other, which have resulted in the occupation of Lahore by the British troops: And whereas it has been determined that upon certain conditions, peace shall be re-established between the two Governments, the following treaty of peace between the Honourable English East India Company, and Maharaja Dalip Singh Bahadur, and his childern, heirs, and successors, bas been concluded, on the part of the Honourable Company, by Frederick Currie, Esq; and Brevet-Major Henry Montgomery Lawrence, by virtue of full powers to that effect vested in them by the Right Honourable Sir Henry Hardinge, G.C.B., one of Her Brittanic Majesty's most Honourable Privy Council, Governor-General appointed by the Honourable Company to direct and control all their affairs in the East-Indies, and on the part of his Highness the Maharaja, Dalip Singh, by Bhai Ram Singh, Raja Lai Singh, Sardar Tej Singh, Sardar Chattar Singh Attariwala, Sardar Ranjor Singh Majithia, Diwan Dina Nath, and Fakir Nur-ud-din vested with full powers and authority on the part of his Highness.

Article 1. There shall be  perpetual  peace  and  friendship between the British Government, on the one part, and Maharaja Dalip Singh, his heirs and successors on the other.

Article 2. The Maharaja of Lahore renounces for himself, his heirs and successors all claim to or connection with, the territories lying to the South of the river Sutlej, and engages never to have any concern with those territories or the inhabi­tants thereof.

Article 3. The Maharaja cedes to the Honourable company in perpetual sovereignty, all his forts, territories, and rights in the Doab and country, hill and plain, situate between the rivers Beas and Sutlej.

Article 4. The British Government having demanded from the Lahore State, an indemnification for the expenses of the war, in addition to the cession of territory described in Article 3, payment of a one and a half crores of rupees; and the Lahore Government being unable to pay the whole of this sum at this time, or to give security satisfactory to the British Government for its eventual payment; the Maharaja cedes to the Honourable Company, in perpetual sovereignty, ;is equivalent for one crore of rupees all his forts, territories, rights, and interests in the hill countries which are situate between the rivers Beas and Indus, including the Provinces of Kashmir and Hazara.

Article 5. The Maharaja will pay to the British Government the sum of fifty lacs of rupees, on or before the ratification of this treaty.

Article 6. The Maharaja engages to disband the mutinous troops of the Lahore army, taking from them their arms; and his Highness agrees to reorganize the regular, or Ain, regiments of infantry, upon the system, and according to the regulations as to pay and allowances, observed in the time of the late Mahraja Ranjit Singh. The Maharaja further engages to pay up all arrears to the soldiers that are discharged under the pro­visions of this article.

Article 7. The regular army of Lahore State shall hence-forth be limited to 25 battalions of infantry, consisting of 800 bayonets each with 12,000 cavalry: this number at no time to be all private property that may be endamaged. The British Government will, moreover, observe all due consideration to the religious feelings of the inhabitants of those tracts through, which the army may pass.

Article 11. The Maharaja engages never to take, or retain in his service, any British subject, nor the subject of any European or American State, without the consent of the British Government.

Article 12. In consideration of the services rendered by Raja Gulab Singh of Jammu to the Lahore State, towards procuring the restoration of relations of amity between the Lahore and British Governments, the Maharaja hereby agrees to recognize the independent sovereignty of Raja Gulab Singh, in such territories and districts in the hills as may be made over to the said Raja Gulab Singh by separate agreement between himself and the British Government, with the dependencies thereof, which may have been in the Raja's possession since the time of the late Maharaja Kharak Singh: and the British Government in consideration of the good conduct of Raja Gulab Singh, also agrees to recognize his independence in s

Whereas the treaty of amity and concord, which was concluded between the British Government and the late Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the ruler of Lahore in 1809, was broken by the unprovoked aggression on the British provinces of the Sikh Army, in December last: And whereas, on that occasion, by the proclamation dated the 13th of December, the territories then in the occupation of the Maharaja of Lahore, on the left or British bank of the river Sutlej, were confiscated and annexed to the British provinces; and since that time, hostile operations have been prosecuted by the two Governments, the one against the other, which have resulted in the occupation of Lahore by the British troops: And whereas it has been determined that upon certain conditions, peace shall be re-established between the two Governments, the following treaty of peace between the Honourable English East India Company, and Maharaja Dalip Singh Bahadur, and his childern, heirs, and successors, bas been concluded, on the part of the Honourable Company, by Frederick Currie, Esq; and Brevet-Major Henry Montgomery Lawrence, by virtue of full powers to that effect vested in them by the Right Honourable Sir Henry Hardinge, G.C.B., one of Her Brittanic Majesty's most Honourable Privy Council, Governor-General appointed by the Honourable Company to direct and control all their affairs in the East-Indies, and on the part of his Highness the Maharaja, Dalip Singh, by Bhai Ram Singh, Raja Lai Singh, Sardar Tej Singh, Sardar Chattar Singh Attariwala, Sardar Ranjor Singh Majithia, Diwan Dina Nath, and Fakir Nur-ud-din vested with full powers and authority on the part of his Highness.

Article 1. There shall be  perpetual  peace  and  friendship between the British Government, on the one part, and Maharaja Dalip Singh, his heirs and successors on the other.

Article 2. The Maharaja of Lahore renounces for himself, his heirs and successors all claim to or connection with, the territories lying to the South of the river Sutlej, and engages never to have any concern with those territories or the inhabi­tants thereof.

Article 3. The Maharaja cedes to the Honourable company in perpetual sovereignty, all his forts, territories, and rights in the Doab and country, hill and plain, situate between the rivers Beas and Sutlej.

Article 4. The British Government having demanded from the Lahore State, an indemnification for the expenses of the war, in addition to the cession of territory described in Article 3, payment of a one and a half crores of rupees; and the Lahore Government being unable to pay the whole of this sum at this time, or to give security satisfactory to the British Government for its eventual payment; the Maharaja cedes to the Honourable Company, in perpetual sovereignty, ;is equivalent for one crore of rupees all his forts, territories, rights, and interests in the hill countries which are situate between the rivers Beas and Indus, including the Provinces of Kashmir and Hazara.

Article 5. The Maharaja will pay to the British Government the sum of fifty lacs of rupees, on or before the ratification of this treaty.

Article 6. The Maharaja engages to disband the mutinous troops of the Lahore army, taking from them their arms; and his Highness agrees to reorganize the regular, or Ain, regiments of infantry, upon the system, and according to the regulations as to pay and allowances, observed in the time of the late Mahraja Ranjit Singh. The Maharaja further engages to pay up all arrears to the soldiers that are discharged under the pro­visions of this article.

Article 7. The regular army of Lahore State shall hence-forth be limited to 25 battalions of infantry, consisting of 800 bayonets each with 12,000 cavalry: this number at no time to be all private property that may be endamaged. The British Government will, moreover, observe all due consideration to the religious feelings of the inhabitants of those tracts through, which the army may pass.

Article 11. The Maharaja engages never to take, or retain in his service, any British subject, nor the subject of any European or American State, without the consent of the British Government.

Article 12. In consideration of the services rendered by Raja Gulab Singh of Jammu to the Lahore State, towards procuring the restoration of relations of amity between the Lahore and British Governments, the Maharaja hereby agrees to recognize the independent sovereignty of Raja Gulab Singh, in such territories and districts in the hills as may be made over to the said Raja Gulab Singh by separate agreement between himself and the British Government, with the dependencies thereof, which may have been in the Raja's possession since the time of the late Maharaja Kharak Singh: and the British Government in consideration of the good conduct of Raja Gulab Singh, also agrees to recognize his independence in s

Whereas the treaty of amity and concord, which was concluded between the British Government and the late Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the ruler of Lahore in 1809, was broken by the unprovoked aggression on the British provinces of the Sikh Army, in December last: And whereas, on that occasion, by the proclamation dated the 13th of December, the territories then in the occupation of the Maharaja of Lahore, on the left or British bank of the river Sutlej, were confiscated and annexed to the British provinces; and since that time, hostile operations have been prosecuted by the two Governments, the one against the other, which have resulted in the occupation of Lahore by the British troops: And whereas it has been determined that upon certain conditions, peace shall be re-established between the two Governments, the following treaty of peace between the Honourable English East India Company, and Maharaja Dalip Singh Bahadur, and his childern, heirs, and successors, bas been concluded, on the part of the Honourable Company, by Frederick Currie, Esq; and Brevet-Major Henry Montgomery Lawrence, by virtue of full powers to that effect vested in them by the Right Honourable Sir Henry Hardinge, G.C.B., one of Her Brittanic Majesty's most Honourable Privy Council, Governor-General appointed by the Honourable Company to direct and control all their affairs in the East-Indies, and on the part of his Highness the Maharaja, Dalip Singh, by Bhai Ram Singh, Raja Lai Singh, Sardar Tej Singh, Sardar Chattar Singh Attariwala, Sardar Ranjor Singh Majithia, Diwan Dina Nath, and Fakir Nur-ud-din vested with full powers and authority on the part of his Highness.

Article 1. There shall be  perpetual  peace  and  friendship between the British Government, on the one part, and Maharaja Dalip Singh, his heirs and successors on the other.

Article 2. The Maharaja of Lahore renounces for himself, his heirs and successors all claim to or connection with, the territories lying to the South of the river Sutlej, and engages never to have any concern with those territories or the inhabi­tants thereof.

Article 3. The Maharaja cedes to the Honourable company in perpetual sovereignty, all his forts, territories, and rights in the Doab and country, hill and plain, situate between the rivers Beas and Sutlej.

Article 4. The British Government having demanded from the Lahore State, an indemnification for the expenses of the war, in addition to the cession of territory described in Article 3, payment of a one and a half crores of rupees; and the Lahore Government being unable to pay the whole of this sum at this time, or to give security satisfactory to the British Government for its eventual payment; the Maharaja cedes to the Honourable Company, in perpetual sovereignty, ;is equivalent for one crore of rupees all his forts, territories, rights, and interests in the hill countries which are situate between the rivers Beas and Indus, including the Provinces of Kashmir and Hazara.

Article 5. The Maharaja will pay to the British Government the sum of fifty lacs of rupees, on or before the ratification of this treaty.

Article 6. The Maharaja engages to disband the mutinous troops of the Lahore army, taking from them their arms; and his Highness agrees to reorganize the regular, or Ain, regiments of infantry, upon the system, and according to the regulations as to pay and allowances, observed in the time of the late Mahraja Ranjit Singh. The Maharaja further engages to pay up all arrears to the soldiers that are discharged under the pro­visions of this article.

Article 7. The regular army of Lahore State shall hence-forth be limited to 25 battalions of infantry, consisting of 800 bayonets each with 12,000 cavalry: this number at no time to be all private property that may be endamaged. The British Government will, moreover, observe all due consideration to the religious feelings of the inhabitants of those tracts through, which the army may pass.

Article 11. The Maharaja engages never to take, or retain in his service, any British subject, nor the subject of any European or American State, without the consent of the British Government.

Article 12. In consideration of the services rendered by Raja Gulab Singh of Jammu to the Lahore State, towards procuring the restoration of relations of amity between the Lahore and British Governments, the Maharaja hereby agrees to recognize the independent sovereignty of Raja Gulab Singh, in such territories and districts in the hills as may be made over to the said Raja Gulab Singh by separate agreement between himself and the British Government, with the dependencies thereof, which may have been in the Raja's possession since the time of the late Maharaja Kharak Singh: and the British Government in consideration of the good conduct of Raja Gulab Singh, also agrees to recognize his independence in s

 

Saying No for Editing Saying No

 

 

New Delhi has marked out a red line on OBOR and it is one that Beijing must learn to respect

The recently concluded Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) summit in Qingdao, China, saw Prime Minister Narendra Modi coin yet another acronym to go with the many others he has for both domestic and international audiences. SECURE — or S for security, E for economic development, C for connectivity, U for unity, R for Respect and E for environmental protection — may or may not have been a bit labored but Modi's resounding 'No' to endorsing Beijing's grand One Belt One Road (OBOR) initiative was anything but. It was an emphatic and unambiguous articulation of India's deep concern about China playing ducks and drakes on the twin issues of sovereignty and territorial integrity, eliding these issues when it comes to India's concerns while being historically ultra-aggressive when it comes to any questioning of its own claims on disputed territories and its stand on what constitutes interference in its sovereign decision-making sphere.

In reiterating India's stated position on OBOR from a high-profile platform such as the SCO summit, the Prime Minister has also ensured that China will have to accept that arguments about “regional prosperity” and “economic imperative” which Beijing's apologists in India and the region trot out in support of the “inevitability” of the initiative will not pass muster. At least not as long as the Modi Administration is around. In nuancing its opposition to OBOR, New Delhi has done well to decouple the need for greater cooperation within and economic integration of the region and the countries that will be served by OBOR from the issue of each nation's sovereign rights, which has a major implication in the projection of power in the region. After all, if sovereignty is chipped away in the name of future prosperity the existing regional hegemon is only the gainer in geopolitical terms. Support for terrorism and the expansionist designs of certain nations in the region (without naming either Pakistan or China) is also a concern that reflects in New Delhi's opposition to the Chinese-initiated project. In fact, Modi's plenary speech at the SCO laid the ground for the Indian stand when he pointedly said India welcomed connectivity projects which respect sovereignty.

We must, however, be prepared for a pushback from Beijing. The wording of the communique issued after the two-day meet ensured India was clearly identified by omission while lauding the other nations for reiterating support for the OBOR and its implementation and, to underline New Delhi's so-called isolation on an issue of great concern to it, the SCO added that meddling in the affairs of other nations on the “pretext of fighting terror” was not acceptable.There is also pressure being applied on the KP Oli Government in Kathmandu to not be too gung-ho about the India-Nepal connectivity mega project. We are in for interesting times, to say the least, and the lack of domestic agreement on how to deal with a rampant China is a cause for worry.

 

Courtesy: Pioneer: Editorial: Tuesday, 12 June 2018

 

 

 

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Ed-Pio-12062018  Saying No

 

New Delhi has marked out a red line on OBOR and it is one that Beijing must learn to respect

The recently concluded Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) summit in Qingdao, China, saw Prime Minister Narendra Modi coin yet another acronym to go with the many others he has for both domestic and international audiences. SECURE — or S for security, E for economic development, C for connectivity, U for unity, R for Respect and E for environmental protection — may or may not have been a bit labored but Modi's resounding 'No' to endorsing Beijing's grand One Belt One Road (OBOR) initiative was anything but. It was an emphatic and unambiguous articulation of India's deep concern about China playing ducks and drakes on the twin issues of sovereignty and territorial integrity, eliding these issues when it comes to India's concerns while being historically ultra-aggressive when it comes to any questioning of its own claims on disputed territories and its stand on what constitutes interference in its sovereign decision-making sphere.

In reiterating India's stated position on OBOR from a high-profile platform such as the SCO summit, the Prime Minister has also ensured that China will have to accept that arguments about “regiona

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